Then something happened about 10,000 years ago (in some places)--people learned how to take wild grasses like wheat and barley and grow them. They had to figure out that the grasses contained seeds, which they could then collect. They also had to learn that they couldn't eat all of the seeds they collected since there wouldn't be any left to plant the following year. They also learned to capture wild animals and domesticate them, meaning they now had a steady supply of meat and now wheat/barley.
This had amazing repercussions for humans. It meant that they now started to settle in one place (where they were farming). As they grew more food, they ate more and became healthier, and healthier people produce more children, so population levels begin to rise. People then formed villages and had to learn to live with neighbors. They had to learn to share and work together.
It also meant that not everyone had to farm, so you find different jobs forming--people now had the time to just make bricks, or pottery, or art.
So what does this mean for us today? Our society is built upon the foundation created during the Neolithic. We have a modern society because of farmers who grow the food so we don't have to. Since we don't have to, we have time to do other things, like studying these Neolithic farmers.