Civilization: from the Latin civis, meaning an inhabitant of a city.
Paleolithic: paleo means old, and lithic means stone (Greek words)
Mesolithic: meso means middle, and lithic means stone (Greek)
Neolithic: neo means new (Greek)
Homo sapien sapien: Homo means person; sapien sapien means wise, wise
Mesopotamia: As above, meso means middle, and potamos means river (so the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates
Hippopotamus: Hippo means horse, and as above, potamos means river
Potable (as in potable water), comes from potamos
Monarch: mono means one, and arch (comes from
the Greek archon) means ruler
Monotheism: as above, mono means one, theism comes from theo, meaning god
Polytheism: poly means many, and as above, theism means god.
Acropolis: acro means high (think acrobat), and polis means city
Strategy: comes from the Greek strategos, which means a military general
Doctor: comes from the Latin for teacher.
Metropolitan: comes from the Greek mater which means mother, and polis, meaning city.
Patriarchy: comes from the Greek pater which means father, and arch, meaning ruler